Wilkes University

Aerospace Studies Minor

Aerospace Studies (Air Force ROTC)

Total minimum number of credits required for a minor in Aerospace Studies – 22.


The Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) program at Wilkes University permits students to earn commissions as officers in the U.S. Air Force while pursuing a university degree. Students enroll in either the four-year or three-year program. Students with three years remaining until graduation may enroll concurrently in the freshman and sophomore Aerospace Studies courses and can complete the four-year program in three years; moreover, any interested student may call the detachment and query staff regarding additional programs available (570-408-4860).

A minor in Aerospace Studies is available to students who complete a minimum of 22 semester hours including the following: up to 16 hours of Aerospace Studies courses (AS 101, 102, 201, 202, 301, 302, 401, 402) and 3 hours for AFROTC Field Training (4-week AFROTC Field Training AS 240), and a minimum of 3 credit hours within one area listed below. This area should explore a discipline other than the student's major.

Additional Courses Required in the Minor (By Concentration)
Business Administration Credits
BA-151 – Integrated Management Experience 3
BA-233 – The Legal Environment of Business 3
BA-234 – Business Law 3
BA-321 – Marketing 3
BA-326 – The Selling Process 3
BA-327 – Marketing Seminar 3
BA-341 – Managerial Finance 3
BA-351 – Management of Organizations and People 3
BA-352 – Production and Operations Management 3
BA-354 – Organizational Behavior 3
BA-356 – The Social Responsibility of Business 3

Communication Studies Credits
COM-101 – Fundamentals of Public Speaking 3
COM-102 – Principles of Communication 3
COM-201 – Advanced Public Speaking 3
COM-202 – Interpersonal Communication 3
COM-206 – Business and Professional Communication 3
COM-220 – Introduction to Telecommunications 3
COM-303 – Organizational Communication 3
COM-352 – Advanced Public Relations Campaigns 3
COM-361 – Feature Writing 3
COM-399 – Cooperative Education 1-6

History Credits
HST-101 – Historical Foundations of the World 3
HST-102 – Europe Before 1600 3
HST-125 – American History I 3
HST-126 – American History II 3
HST-328 – History of the Foreign Policy of the United States 3
HST-334 – The United States, 1900-1945 3
HST-335 – The United States Since 1945 3
HST-376 – World War II 3

Political Science Credits
PS-111 – Introduction to American Politics 3
PS-141 – Introduction to International Politics 3
PS-151 – Governments of the World 3
PS-212 – Urban Government and Politics 3
PS-213 – Political Parties and Political Participation 3
PS-221 – Introduction to Public Administration 3
PS-261 – Concepts and Methods in Political Science 3
PS-331 – The Constitution and the Federal System 3
PS-332 – Civil Rights and Liberties 3

Business Administration

BA-119. Data Analysis in Excel

Credits: 1

This course is designed to teach the basic and advanced features and functions of Excel, including summative, descriptive and reporting techniques.  Students will also gain the knowledge of data manipulation and visual reporting. This one-credit class will meet multiple times each week, and will run for 5 consecutive weeks.

BA-151. Integrated Management Experience I

Credits: 3
Terms Offered: Fall

Integrated Management Experience is a two-semester sequence that takes you through the entrepreneurial process from creating a business concept to planning the venture to launching and operating the business to harvest and closure of the firm. You learn how businesses plan and operate through the study of functional areas such as marketing, management, human resources, accounting and finance, and operations. Most importantly, you will learn and experience how the pieces fit together through integrating the functional areas tracking information and performance using financial accounting principles. Cross listed with ACC-151 and ENT-151.

BA-152. Integrated Management Experience II

Credits: 3
Terms Offered: Spring

Integrated Management Experience is a two-semester sequence that takes you through the entrepreneurial process from creating a business concept to planning the venture to launching and operating the business to harvest and closure of the firm. You learn how businesses plan and operate through the study of functional areas such as marketing, management, human resources, accounting and finance, and operations. You develop a clear understanding of the importance of accounting cycles and how financial accounting principles provide not only information but an integrating thread for all types of organizations. Cross listed with ACC-152 and ENT-152.

Pre-Requisites
ACC-151 / BA-151 / ENT-151 with a minimum grade of 2.0

BA-153. Management Foundations

Credits: 3

Management Foundations provides the framework for further study in accounting, business administration, and entrepreneurship programs. Functional areas of management are examined. This class is closed to freshmen and to any student who completed ACC/BA/ENT 151 and ACC/BA/ENT 152.

BA-319. Business Statistics

Credits: 3
Terms Offered: Fall

An introduction to the primary tools of research in business and economics; the collection, summarization, analysis, and interpretation of statistical findings relevant to business decisions. Two hours of lecture and one hour of individualized laboratory. Topics covered will include, but not be limited to, descriptive statistics, probability, sampling theory, hypothesis testing, and regression and correlation analysis. Cross-listed with EC-319

Pre-Requisites
MTH-101 or higher

BA-335. Law and Business

Credits: 3

This course provides a foundation for understanding how the law functions; the laws protecting consumers and employees; and the law of contracts, sales, and business organizations.

BA-336. Advanced Topics in Business Law

Credits: 3
Terms Offered: Spring

This course provides students with an understanding of select advanced topics in law, specifically those that have the greatest impact on business and accounting.

Pre-Requisites
BA-335 with a minimum grade of 2.0

BA-337. Legal Aspects of Sport and Event Management

Credits: 3

Introduces legal issues that confront contemporary organized athletics and sports management. Specific topics which are highlighted include impact of antitrust laws; personal services contracts; labor law; injury and liability; franchise and transfer rules; and tax aspects. Examines the role of legal services within sports organizations and in individual athlete representation.

Pre-Requisites
BA-335 with a minimum grade of 2.0

BA-338. International Business Law

Credits: 3
Terms Offered: On Demand,Spring

The course will focus on international business law applicable to international business transactions. Topics covered will include comparable legal systems in the world and the law relative to 1) international sales, transport, credit and commercial agreements; 2) trade law including imports, customs, tariff regulations/agreements, regional free trade areas; 3) regulation of the marketplace including licensing, patent, advertising, sales representation, foreign investment and business formation, currency risk, anti-trust, employment and environmental law. This course is offered every other fall – odd years.

Pre-Requisites
BA-335 with a minimum grade of 2.0

BA-419. Quantitative Decision Making

Credits: 3

This course is designed to build on the basics of introductory statistics so that the students understand how a variety of advanced statistical tools are used to support decision-making using business data.  Students develop necessary skills to build models that conform the assumptions of the procedures. The course aims to provide more hands on experience. The topics that will be introduced include descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA, simple linear regression, multiple linear regression, logistic regression and their applications on business data.  

Pre-Requisites

BA-461. Business Strategy and Decision-making

Credits: 3

The first of a two-semester capstone experience. This course integrates the functional areas of business from the perspective of top management. Emphasis is on the role of management in the formation of strategic and long-range plans.

Pre-Requisites
MKT-221, EC-101, EC-102, FIN-240, and MGT-251 all with a minimum grade of 2.0

BA-462. Professional Business Experience

Credits: 3
Pre-Requisites
MKT-221, FIN-240, and MGT-251 all with a minimum grade of 2.0

BA-463. The Business Field and Research Experience

Credits: 3

This course allows the student to choose from a variety of professional opportunities. The student could perform research and writing in his or her major area. Such research must be approved by the instructor in advance. (The Undergraduate Thesis) The student may participate in a multidisciplinary capstone course that incorporates the application of business creation, development, and planning. It includes the application of business functions such as management, business strategy, marketing, accounting, finance, operations management, and sales. (The Business Incubator) The student could also visit several local organizations to conduct a live case comparison that spans industries and organizations as it pertains to his or her major area and faculty interests. (The Business Field Experience) Action learning gives students the opportunity to develop an understanding of the Sidhu School disciplines and business practices that are ethically and socially responsible.

Pre-Requisites
Senior class standing.

BA-464. International Business Experience

Credits: 3

The course provides an overview of a Western European Society. A ten-day field trip in Western Europe is a major learning experience of the course. Site visits are made in a number of cities in European countries. Site visits include Cities, Regions, and Business and travel centers. Arrangements for travel are made during the fall, and travel in the spring. The purpose of the course is to create a global learning experience using Western Europe as a medium to facilitate the student’s understanding of the global business environment. Presentations, discussions, travel, observations, projects, as well as written papers will provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate their understanding and knowledge.

Communication Studies

COM-101. Fundamentals of Public Speaking

Credits: 3

Principles of study, application, and evaluation of public speaking. Emphasis will be upon meeting the needs of students through individualized instruction in oral communication settings. The course is taught each semester.

COM-102. Principles of Communication

Credits: 3

A study of the theory and process of communication. Required of all department majors. Taught every spring semester.

COM-124. Mass Media Literacy

Credits: 3

This is a survey course that takes a literacy approach to the study of mass media and their role in society. Taught every spring semester.

COM-144. Department Practicum

Credits: 1-2

A-Debate and Forensics; B-P.R. Agency; C- WCHL Radio; D-The Beacon; E-Television; F- Department. The Department Practicum may be taken for one or two credits per semester with the total not to exceed six credits. Students may earn credit for major roles and positions of major responsibility in the above co-curricular activities. Credit for participation in these activities is optional, and voluntary participation (without credit) is also encouraged. The department, through the advisor or instructor of the activity, has the authority to approve or reject any contract for credit under this designation. Credits earned are applicable toward graduation, but do not count toward the degree requirements of any concentration in Communication Studies. Written approval of credit must be by advisor and Department chairperson.

COM-202. Interpersonal Communication

Credits: 3

This course focuses on interpersonal communication theory and its application to improving the student’s interpersonal skills in managing conflict, negotiating, interviewing, and in developing relationships. Taught fall semesters.

Pre-Requisites
COM-102 or consent of the instructor.

COM-203. Small Group & Team Communication

Credits: 3

This course is designed to enable students to improve their decision-making abilities within group and team settings. Emphasis will be placed on team-building, as well as task, leadership and interpersonal skills needed for effective group communication. 

Pre-Requisites

COM-204. Argumentation and Debate

Credits: 3

Training in the fundamentals of argumentation and debate, with practice in gathering and organizing evidence and support materials. Course taught every other fall semester.

Pre-Requisites
COM-101 or consent of the instructor.

COM-206. Business and Professional Communication

Credits: 3

Course will concentrate on communication theory as applied to business and professional settings. Students will make several oral presentations and participate in interviewing and conferences. Course taught fall semester in alternate years.

COM-220. Introduction to Electronic Media

Credits: 3

An overview of the history, institutions, and message systems of the radio, television, cable, satellite, and internet industries.

COM-222. Broadcast Production

Credits: 3

A study of the principles and techniques of audio and video production. A special emphasis is placed on the utilization of these techniques in broadcast settings.

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COM-223. The Art of Film

Credits: 3

An introduction to the aesthetics, techniques, and critical analysis of cinematic art through the study of representative films of current and past film directors. Screenings and writing intensified.

COM-252. Internship

Credits: 3-6

A supervised program of work and study in any of the concentrations. Written permission of the department is required. Offered every semester.

COM-260. Basic Newswriting

Credits: 3

Fundamentals of newsgathering, newswriting, and news judgment for all media; study of news sources; fieldwork, research, and interview techniques.

Pre-Requisites

COM-261. Multimedia Communication

Credits: 3

This course offers a skills-focused and theoretical approach to multimedia communication. Through a variety of readings, discussions and practical workshops, students will earn basic skills for navigating through multimedia platforms, including, but not limited to social media, apps, and audio/visual modes of communication. Students will be given the tools and information to adapt their knowledge and expertise as media and software packages change. Students will also critically analyze multimedia platforms to better understand their functions and the repercussions of releasing information on (or through) them.

Pre-Requisites

COM-262. Visual Communications

Credits: 3

This course offers a hands-on approach to exploring the visual aspects of design and storytelling. Students will be introduced to basic principles of design that are applicable to a variety of career fields.  Students also will learn about visual storytelling, the power of visual messages, and the interconnectedness between verbal and visual messages. Through readings, class discussions and workshops, students will gain the knowledge to not only produce effective and quality visual messages, but they will also be challenged to critically analyze visual messages and discuss the ethics behind the messages and the message making process.

COM-300. Communication Criticism

Credits: 3

Theories from classical to contemporary will be applied to the analysis of written, visual, and electronic messages. Emphasis on speech writing and criticism.

Pre-Requisites

COM-301. Persuasion

Credits: 3

Study and practice of persuasive speaking. General theories of persuasion, the role of persuasion in a democratic society, and an introduction to modern experimental research in the field.

Pre-Requisites

COM-302. Fundamentals of Public Relations

Credits: 3

An introduction to the fundamentals of public relations practice, including program planning and evaluation, working with the media, writing for PR, and coordinating special events and functions. Taught every fall semester.

Pre-Requisites

COM-303. Organizational Communication

Credits: 3

Course focuses on traditional and modern concepts of communication channels in simple and complex organizations. Considerable attention is given to interviewing and conducting communication audits.

Pre-Requisites
COM-102 or consent of the instructor.

COM-304. Intercultural Communication

Credits: 3

Intercultural Communication is a systematic study of what happens when people from different cultural backgrounds interact face-to-face. The course is a balance between theoretical and practical knowledge, with emphasis on immediately usable knowledge. Guest speakers, in-class simulations, cross-cultural interviews, and research projects ask students to apply communication skills to actual intercultural situations.

Pre-Requisites
COM-102 or consent of the instructor.

COM-305. Studies in Public Address

Credits: 3

This class is a hybrid or comparative approach to the study of public address in the United States. We will study traditional and critical rhetorical theories of public address. We will also engage with speakers and texts that both challenge and reinforce the "great speeches" mold. As we pursue these objectives, we will focus our study on selected social movement rhetorics in the United States, including those of women's and feminist movements, civil rights movements, labor movements, and LGBTQ movements.

Pre-Requisites
COM-102 or consent of the instructor.

COM-320. Media Management

Credits: 3

This course will provide a framework for understanding the functions and methods of media managers in both print and non-print media.

Pre-Requisites
COM-220 or consent of the instructor.

COM-321. Advanced Multimedia Reporting

Credits: 3

This course combines advanced reporting techniques with multimedia production to create news 'packages'. Students  will discuss audience analysis and determine  what makes a solid news package for a pa1iicular audience and/or demographic. The class will analyze existing news packages and then split into teams to create their own multimedia  news stories that relate not only to the university, but also to the Wilkcs-Barre area. Teams will be responsible for all reporting and multimedia work, including,  but not limited to, video, online  and photo components.  Near the end of the semester, students  will present  their  work  to a panel  of industry and/or academic professionals for feedback. 

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Pre-Requisites

COM-322. Advanced Video Production

Credits: 3

A study of the principles and techniques of video production. Scripting, producing, and editing videography are subjects covered extensively by this course. Each student will produce several video productions. Taught every spring semester.

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Pre-Requisites
COM-222 or consent of the instructor.

COM-323. Advanced Audio Production

Credits: 3

This advanced level course builds on the basic skills learned in Broadcast Production with an emphasis on radio and the radio industry. Students  will learn the theory and techniques of in depth radio production, including multi-track recording, mixing, signal processing, editing, mastering, creative radio production, and sound design for media. Students will be expected to work independently and within the group to produce broadcast quality production content suitable to be aired on WCLH.

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COM-324. Communication Research Methods I

Credits: 3

A study of the basic foundations in the theory and practice of communication research.  The course will review the varied concepts and methods used in designing and conducting research specific to the discipline of Communication Studies and introduce students to the process of applying to the Institutional Review Board for research permission involving human subjects. Emphasis on ability to hone research topics, identify research sources, and write literature reviews. Required of all majors. Course taught every fall semester.

Pre-Requisites

COM-325. Communication Research Methods II

Credits: 3

A focus on the principles and techniques of sampling, data analysis, and data interpretation as applied to communication research.  Qualitative and quantitative analyses will be explored, as will fundamental aspects of both descriptive and interpretive statistics.  An emphasis is placed on students’ ability to work independently to gather, analyze, interpret, and report original research findings.  Required of all majors. Course taught every spring semester.

Pre-Requisites

COM-352. Advanced Public Relations Campaigns

Credits: 3

COM-352 is an advanced course in public relations, taught in seminar format. Emphasis is placed on planning, researching, budgeting, carrying out and evaluating actual public relations campaigns. The course is both writing and speaking intensive. In cooperation with various community-based businesses and non-profit clients, student 'teams' conduct actual semester-long promotional campaigns. Students should be competent in basic newswriting, interviewing, and fundamentals of public relations. Course taught in alternative spring semesters.

Pre-Requisites

COM-354. International Field Experience in Communication

Credits: 1-6

One to six creditsInternational Field Experience in Communication is an international service-learning experience that focuses on social and communication issues. Students will do a service project related to an area of communication studies including, but not limited to, Broadcast and Print Media, Public Relations, or Strategic Communication. Qualifies for Study Tour Experience (STE) credit pricing.

COM-360. Advanced Newswriting

Credits: 3

A study of specialized reporting and an introduction to news editing.

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Pre-Requisites

COM-361. Feature Writing

Credits: 3

A study of feature articles for newspapers, syndicates, magazines, and specialized publications. Practice in research, interviewing, and writing.

Pre-Requisites

COM-362. Mass Communication Law

Credits: 3

Current legal problems, theory of controls in journalism, television, and radio; libel, copyright, privacy law, and other legal issues affecting the mass media. A case study approach will be used.

COM-372. Managing a Public Relations Agency

Credits: 3

Focus on difference between in-house public relations and agency operators. Students work with several clients.

Pre-Requisites

COM-397. Senior Seminar/Communications

Credits: 3

An in-depth investigation of current research and ethical issues in communication. A research paper and senior project required. Required of all majors. Course taught every spring semester.

Pre-Requisites
COM-324 and junior or senior standing.

COM-398. Topics

Credits: 1-3

A study of topics of special interest not extensively treated in regularly offered courses.

COM-399. Cooperative Education

Credits: 1-6

Professional cooperative education placement in a private or public organization related to the student’s academic objectives and career goals. In addition to their work experience, students are required to submit weekly reaction papers and an academic project to a Faculty Coordinator in the student’s discipline. (See the Cooperative Education section of this bulletin for placement procedures.)

Pre-Requisites
Completion of Sophomore year, 2.25 cumulative GPA, consent of academic advisor, and approval of placement by department chairperson.

History

HST-101. The Historical Foundations of the Modern World

Credits: 3

A thematic survey of the forces shaping the modern world. Topics studied include the following: world religions; science; rationalism; industrial capitalism; liberalism; socialism; global discovery; imperialism; nationalism; and totalitarianism.

HST-102. Europe Before 1600

Credits: 3

A survey of European history from Ancient times through the Reformation.

HST-125. American History I

Credits: 3

A survey of North American and U.S. history from European-Native American contact to the Civil War.

HST-126. American History II

Credits: 3

A survey of U.S. history from the Civil War to the present

HST-211. Introduction to Public History

Credits: 3

An introduction to the debates, issues and practice of public history. Students will explore specific careers in public history, learn the research tools and methods used by public historians, and apply public history methodology to larger historical questions.

HST-252. The Changing Face of Eastern Europe

Credits: 3
This course explores the theoretical and empirical problems related to the process of transition to democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. Topics such as privatization, human rights, transitional justice, security dilemmas and institutional deadlock are addressed in this course.

HST-297. Historical Research and Methods Seminar

Credits: 3

An introduction to the skills and methods needed for successful research and writing about history. Enrollment is limited to history majors and minors except by permission of the instructor.

HST-311. Oral History (A)

Credits: 3

This is a 'hands on' course in which we will examine the use of structured interviews by both professional and amateur historians. Students will both conduct oral history interviews and plan oral history projects. This course is ideal for teachers, church and other local historians, as everyone should end the semester with the ability to design and execute their own oral history project. No prior historical or technical knowledge is assumed or needed.

HST-312. American Material Culture (A)

Credits: 3

An introduction to the theories and methods of material culture. By studying objects and employing interdisciplinary approaches, students will investigate American material life and attempt to uncover attitudes and beliefs of the individuals and culture that produced those objects.

HST-321. American Cultural and Social History (A)

Credits: 3

An examination of differences and divisions within American society through such topics as social movements, demographic trends, gender, ethnicity, and class, the effect of industrialization and immigration, cultural expressions, religion, and the family.

HST-324. American Economic History (A)

Credits: 3

A survey of the evolution of the American economy from colonial dependency to modern industrial maturity. Emphasis will be placed upon the development of the United States as an industrial world power since about 1850.

HST-325. Diversity in Pennsylvania History (A)

Credits: 3

A study of the history of the Commonwealth with particular focus on ethnic and racial diversity.

HST-328. History of the Foreign Policy of the United States (A)

Credits: 3

A selective treatment of major themes in American foreign policy from the founding of the Republic to the present.

HST-329. American Women's History (A)

Credits: 3

A study of the role, status, and culture of women in America beginning with the First Americans and European contact to the present time.

HST-331. Colonial America (A)

Credits: 3

Discovery, exploration, and settlement; development of social, political, religious, and intellectual institutions; independence and political reorganization.

HST-332. The New Nation (A)

Credits: 3

A study of America's social, cultural, economic and political development in the first generations of nationhood, 1783-1840.

HST-333. Victorian America (A)

Credits: 3

A study of the development of the United States from the end of the Civil War through the end of World War I. Special attention will be paid to urbanization and industrialization and their effects on everyday life.

HST-334. The United States, 1900-1945 (A)

Credits: 3

The emergence of the United States as a world power and the corresponding development of its political, economic, social, and religious institutions.

HST-335. The United States Since 1945 (A)

Credits: 3

An examination of the political, social, and economic changes in the United States since World War II. Special attention is paid to America's dominant role in the immediate post-war world and how changing conditions over the past forty years have altered this role.

HST-341. History of Great Britain and the British Empire and Commonwealth

Credits: 3

A study of British history from the Neolithic period to present times. The first semester will cover social, economic, and political developments to 1783, including expansion overseas. The second semester, HST-342, will cover the consequences of the industrial revolution and the evolution of the Empire into the Commonwealth.

HST-342. History of Great Britain and the British Empire and Commonwealth

Credits: 3

A study of British history from the Neolithic period to present times. The first semester, HST-341, will cover social, economic, and political developments to 1783, including expansion overseas. The second semester will cover the consequences of the industrial revolution and the evolution of the Empire into the Commonwealth.

HST-345. History of Northeastern Europe (N)

Credits: 3

A study of the cultural, political and intellectual history of the Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Slovenes and Hungarians, who occupy the northern tier of Eastern Europe. Special attention is given to the roles of the Habsburg and Russian empires in shaping the historical destinies of these peoples, and to the roots and consequences of the forces of nationalism in the region.

HST-346. History of the Balkans (N)

Credits: 3

A study of the cultural, political and intellectual history of the Bulgarians, Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Albanians, Greeks, Romanians and Turks, who occupy the southern, or Balkan, tier of Eastern Europe. Special attention is given to the roles of the Ottoman Turkish, Habsburg and Russian empires in shaping the historical destinies of these peoples, and to the roots and consequences in the region of such forces as Christian-Muslim cultural interrelationships and nationalism.

HST-348. History of Russia (N)

Credits: 3

A study of the political, social, and intellectual history of Russia. Emphasis is placed upon the emergence of Russia as a major power after 1700.

HST-352. The Renaissance and Global Connections (N)

Credits: 3

The course examines the growing interconnectivity of the globe from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries brought about by the Columbian Exchange, trade in Asia and religious and cultural reform.  It pays particular attention to the impact these connections had upon culture, trade, religious ideas and political conflict.  The precise geographic perspective of the course is contingent upon instructor.

HST-353. Global Empires of the Eighteenth Century (N)

Credits: 3

The political, social, economic, intellectual, and cultural development of the world from the early seventeenth through late eighteenth centuries.  The precise geographic perspective of the course is contingent upon instructor.

HST-354. The Age of Revolutions in a Global Context (N)

Credits: 3

This course will examine the circumstances which resulted in the political and economic revolutions of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and their impact on the wider world.  The precise geographic perspective of the course is contingent upon instructor.

HST-355. The Nineteenth Century Global Order (N)

Credits: 3

This course will examine the political, social, economic and cultural development of the world as impacted by Imperialism and the birth of the capitalist global economy from the mid-nineteenth to early twentieth centuries. The precise geographic perspective of the course is contingent upon instructor.

HST-356. World War I and Interwar Period (N)

Credits: 3

This course will examine the international causes of World War I, the Treaties of Versailles, and the new world that resulted, leading to the outbreak of World War II in 1939.

HST-357. The World Since 1945 (N)

Credits: 3

This course examines many important events and developments in the modern world since 1945. It considers incidents of largely historical significance, such as the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, and those of continuing relevance, like the globalization and privatization of the economy.

HST-376. World War II (C)

Credits: 3

Consideration of the causes of the war, military strategy and tactics, diplomatic interests of the participants, and resulting cold war problems.

HST-397. Seminar

Credits: 3

Presentations and discussions of selected topics.

Pre-Requisites
Approval of instructor is required.

HST-399. Cooperative Education

Credits: 1-6

Professional cooperative education placement in a private or public organization related to the student’s academic objectives and career goals. In addition to their work experience, students are required to submit weekly reaction papers and an academic project to a Faculty Coordinator in the student’s discipline. (See the Cooperative Education section of this bulletin for placement procedures.)

Pre-Requisites
Sophomore standing, minimum 2.0 cumulative GPA, consent of academic advisor, and approval of placement by the department chairperson.

Political Science

PS-111. Introduction to American Government

Credits: 3

How and why does the American federal system work? This course introduces students to the constitutional foundations of the American governmental system and explains how and why the system changed over time to function as it does today. Many examples are employed to illustrate the challenges facing those who occupy elected office and the voters who placed them in office. Students are also introduced to basic social science research methods and how they are applied to the study of American politics. Offered every semester.

PS-141. Introduction to International Relations

Credits: 3

An introduction to the field of international relations. Attention is given to basic theories of international relations as well as the issues and problems that confront contemporary world politics. Factors that determine a nation's foreign policy are also examined. Offered every spring.

PS-151. Introduction to Comparative Politics

Credits: 3

This course is an introduction to the study of the politics and government of selected foreign countries. The course will begin with the examination of the various structures and concepts of government around the world and their regional variations. Progressing from the study of a number of alternative structures of politics and government, the course examines several countries in detail providing a specific introduction to the political structures of a number of countries.

PS-212. Urban Government and Politics

Credits: 3

An examination of the structure and operation of urban governments. Metropolitan politics is also considered. Special attention is given to the politics and policy problems confronting American cities and the political dynamics that complicate solving the problems. Cross listed with SOC-263. Counts as a Criminology elective.

PS-213. Parties and Elections

Credits: 3

Though America's Founding Fathers may have had no love for or willingness to incorporate political parties into the Constitution of 1787, parties emerged anyway over the next twenty years. This course explores the origins and developments of political parties and their essential role in our democratic, representative political system. The ideas on which the parties were founded are examined and the evolution to their current positions is analyzed. Many examples of parties and elections at the federal, state and local levels of government are used. Offered every fall semester even years.

PS-221. Introduction to Public Administration

Credits: 3

An introduction to the principles and problems of public administration in an increasingly complex society. Topic such as leadership, informal organizational processes, the relationship of administration to its cultural context, and the question of administrative responsibilities are examined as well as public finance, human resources, ethics, management and administrative law.

PS-224. Public Policy Analysis

Credits: 3

This course is an introduction to the study of public policy at the national level. It examines approaches to public policy and the operation of the 'policy process.' A range of public policy examples is employed, from social welfare to energy and environment to foreign and defense issues.

PS-226. Environmental Policy

PS-232. Criminal Law

Credits: 3

An introduction to the study of criminal law. The principles of criminal law are presented using the case method. The structure and operation of the criminal justice system are also reviewed. Offered every fall.

Pre-Requisites

PS-233. Law and Society

Credits: 3

An introduction to the study of law and its role in social and political systems. Attention is given to theories of law and to the structure of the legal system. Students are given the opportunity to engage in hypothetical dispute resolutions using common law methods. Offered every spring.

Pre-Requisites

PS-242. International Law and Organization

Credits: 3

The study of the nature, application, and sources of international law and how it relates to the evolution of global and regional organizations and alliances, including international non-governmental organizations and other non-state factors.

Pre-Requisites
PS-141 or consent of instructor.

PS-251. European Politics

Credits: 3

Comparison of the development, institutions, problems and prospects of democratic systems is Europe, both west and east. Attention is given to the European Community and its role in the transformation of Europe as well as the development of the former communist states in eastern Europe.

PS-252. The Changing Face of Eastern Europe

Credits: 3
This course examines the theoretical and empirical problems related to the process of transition to democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. Topics such as privatization, human rights, transitional justice, security dilemmas and institutional deadlocked are addressed in this course.

PS-255. Political Economy of Coffee

Credits: 3
This course examines the political economic aspects of the production of coffee, principally in Central America. After an examination of the current state of coffee production in the world, this course studies the historic role of coffee in Central America and how it has affected the politics, history, and people of the region.

PS-260. Introduction to Political Thinking

Credits: 3

An introduction to the study of politics through an examination of the crucial issues with which political scientists grapple: justice, equality, freedom, power, and the good life, to name a few. Offered every spring.

PS-261. Research Methods in Political Science

Credits: 3

A survey of the major concepts, theories and methods of political science as a discipline. Preparation of a research design and a review of quantitative methods also included. Offered every fall.

PS-262. American Political Thought

Credits: 3

The study of the political ideas, ideals, and ideologies that contributed to and developed from the American experience. An analysis of the ideas that underlie America’s political institutions and practices. Cross listed with PHL-236. May not be used to meet Area I requirements of the General Education Curriculum.

PS-265. Quantitative Reasoning for the Social Sciences

Credits: 3

This course is an introduction to quantitative analysis for the social sciences using SPSS, one of the most frequently and widely used statistical packages in the world. Students will learn how to enter and manipulate data in SPSS, apply and interpret statistics from descriptive through multiple regression, and test hypotheses using statistical methods. Cross listed with SOC-373.

Pre-Requisites
PS-111 or 141, PS-261 or SOC-371, or approval of instructor.

PS-309. Career Mentoring for the Social Sciences

Credits: 2

This course will offer career guidance for students in the Behavioral and Social Sciences. The course will include topics such as mentoring, networking, résumés and interviewing skills. Course credits will not count towards minor credits. Open only to majors in the social and behavioral sciences.

Pre-Requisites
PS-111, junior standing. Course will be cross-listed with PSY and SOC-309

PS-311. The American Presidency

Credits: 3

An exploration and analysis of the development of the American President as political leader, chief executive, and world leader as well as the origins and growth of the institutional presidency. Special attention is given to the selection process and its effect on the Presidency. Offered in the fall semester in odd years.

Pre-Requisites
PS-111 or consent of the instructor.

PS-312. The US Congress

Credits: 3

Congress is often referred to as "the People's Branch" of government because voters now directly elect members of both houses, which is different than the other two branches. Yet Congress regularly is held in low esteem by the public. This course explores the constitutional basis of Congress: how it is elected, its powers and its role in a system of separate branches with checks and balances. It also traces Congress's historical development and explains how and why it functions today. Multiple case studies are used to illustrate important points, and a congressional simulation is conducted at the semester's end in which students assume the role of a newly elected member of the House. Offered every spring semester in even years.

Pre-Requisites
PS-111 or consent of the instructor.

PS-331. The Constitution and the Federal System

Credits: 3
The study of the meaning of the Constitution as interpreted by the Supreme Court. Analysis of the powers of the three branches of government and of the relations between the states and the federal government. Offered in the spring semester in even years.
Pre-Requisites
PS-111, PS-233, or consent of the instructor.

PS-332. Civil Rights and Liberties

Credits: 3

The study of the growth and change of the American Constitution through analyses of the landmark decisions regarding free speech and press, separation of church and state, rights of persons accused of crimes, equal protection of the laws, voting rights. Offered in the fall semester in even years.

Pre-Requisites
PS-111, PS-233, or consent of the instructor.

PS-341. Model United Nations

Credits: 3
This course is a comprehensive examination of the role of the United Nations in the world, culminating in the Model United Nations conference in New York. The course will prepare students to participate in the conference by teaching them the structures and functions of the UN as well as the history and viewpoints of the assigned country.

PS-345. American National Security Policy

Credits: 3

This course analyzes U.S. National Security Policy, the combination of foreign and defense policies. Using theories of international politics and foreign policy, students learn about the evolution of U.S. national security from the War of Independence to the contemporary period. Theoretical approaches, such as geopolitics, balance of power, and force doctrines, are examined. The agencies and personnel that develop and implement security policy are also studied.

Pre-Requisites
PS-141 or permission of the instructor.

PS-350. Comparative Politics: Theory and Analysis

Credits: 3

This course is an introduction to the study of politics and governments from a comparative perspective. It is not a survey course of the governmental institutions of particular countries, but rather an examination of types of governments and regimes, the transitions that may occur between types of government, and approaches to studying these topics. The course examines the ways that ethnicity and cultural ideas affect governments and regime transition.

Pre-Requisites
Sophomore standing.

PS-354. Ecotourism Development in Costa Rica

Credits: 3

As an international service-learning course, this class will work with a selected community in Costa Rica on their ecotourism development plan. Students will assist this community with a variety of tasks including an ecotourism business plan, sustainability projects and other tasks determined by our community partner. The course will begin with an examination of the public policy and economic aspects of the development of ecotourism in Costa Rica and how it can benefit our community partner. The second portion of the course will provide an intensive in-country experience with ecotourism stakeholders from both the public and private sector. Students will design and implement a number of projects in Costa Rica to assist the community in the development of its ecotourism industry. The final segment of the course will examine the effects of the service projects completed in Costa Rica on campus.

PS-380. Political Science Senior Project

Credits: 3

This course is the capstone experience for Political Science majors. During the semester, the student completes the research project begun during PS-261 (that is, data and information are gathered and analyzed), and the results written in a formal paper. Students present their findings in a public forum where the department’s faculty and students are present. Offered every semester.

Pre-Requisites
Senior standing, PS-261 and PS-265

PS-394. Practicum

Credits: 1-3
Pre-Requisites
No course prerequisites, but the permission of the instructor or faculty member is required in advance.

PS-399. Cooperative Education

Credits: 1-6

Professional cooperative education placement in a private or public organization related to the student’s academic objectives and career goals. In addition to their work experience, students are required to submit weekly reaction papers and an academic project to a Faculty Coordinator in the student’s discipline. (See the Cooperative Education section of this bulletin for placement procedures.)

Pre-Requisites
Sophomore standing, minimum 2.0 cumulative GPA, consent of academic advisor, and approval of placement by the department chairperson.

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