Wilkes University

Biology Marine

Biology Major with a Marine Science Option and a Minor in Earth and Environmental Sciences

Wilkes University is a member of the Wallops Island Marine Science Consortium, an association of both state and private institutions that oversees the operation of a marine field station located in southeastern Virginia. Through its membership in the Consortium, Wilkes offers to its students the full range of courses in marine sciences and oceanography regularly taught at the Station each summer. Interested students in Biology may formally pursue a minor in Earth and Environmental Sciences and Marine Science Option within a four-year program of study that is fully integrated into their major. On a less formal basis, students who meet course prerequisites may complement regular course work with these unique summer field experiences in oceanography.

Courses taken at the Wallops Island Marine Science Station typically carry three credits and involve three weeks of intensive field and laboratory study at the Marine Station and related field sites (e.g., the Florida Keys and Honduras). Facilities at the Station include dormitory space, cafeteria, labs, lecture halls, a variety of field and laboratory equipment (e.g., one large oceanographic vessel and three inshore vessels), and a range of inshore, offshore, and estuarine field sites.

To enroll in the Wallops Island program, students must first contact the coordinators of the Wallops Island Program at Wilkes University and then register for the appropriate course through the Wilkes University Registrar.

Courses regularly offered at the Station include: 

MS 110 - Introduction to Oceanography
MS 211 - Field Methods in Oceanography
MS 221 - Marine Invertebrates
MS 241 - Marine Biology
MS 250 - Wetland Ecology
MS 260 - Marine Ecology
MS 300 - Behavior of Marine Organisms
MS 330 - Tropical Invertebrates
MS 331 - Chemical Oceanography
MS 342 - Marine Biology
MS 343 - Marine Ichthyology
MS 345 – Ornithology
MS 352 - Modeling in Environmental Biological Sciences
MS 362 - Marine Geology
MS 390 - Undergraduate Research in Marine Science
MS 394 - Physiology of Marine Organisms
MS 431 - Ecology of Marine Plankton
MS 432 - Marine Evolutionary Ecology
MS 433 - Advanced Methods in Coastal Ecology
MS 450 - Coastal Geomorphology
MS 451 - Coastal Environmental Oceanography
MS 464 - Biological Oceanography
MS 470 - Research Diver Methods
MS 471 - Scanning Electron Microscopy: Marine Applications
MS 490 - Marine Aquaculture
MS 491 - Coral Reef Ecology and
MS 492 - Marine Mammals
MS 493 - Behavioral Ecology
MS 500 - Problems in Marine Science

See Coordinators of the Wallops Island Program for outlines of individual courses and for information on the structure of the Marine Science Option.

Biology Major with a Marine Science Option and a Minor in Earth and Environmental Sciences - Required Courses and Recommended Course Sequence

First Semester

BIO-121 - Principles of Modern Biology I

4

CHM-113 - Elements and Compounds Lab

1

CHM-115 - Elements and Compounds

3

FYF-101 - First-Year Foundations

3

MTH-111 - Calculus I

4

Total Credits

15

Second Semester

BIO-122 - Modern Biology II

4

CHM-114 - The Chemical Reaction Lab

1

CHM-116 - The Chemical Reaction

3

ENG-101 - Composition

4

MTH 114 - Calculus and Modeling...

4

Total Credits

16

Third Semester

BIO-225 - Population and Evolutionary Biology

4

CHM 231 - Organic Chemistry I

3

CHM 233 - Organic Chemistry I Lab

1

Distribution Requirement

3

EES-230 - Ocean Science

4

Total Credits

15

Fourth Semester

BIO-226 Cellular and Molecular Biology

4

CHM 232 - Organic Chemistry II

3

CHM 234 - Organic Chemistry II Lab

1

Computer Science Elective

3

Distribution Requirement

3

MTH-150 Elementary Statistics

3

Total Credits

17

MS - Summer College MSC*

3

Fifth Semester

BIO 397 - Professional Preparation Techniques

2

BIO Electives or Research

6

Distribution Requirement

3

PHY-171 - Principles of Classical & Modern Physics

4

Total Credits

15

Sixth Semester

Bio or EES-343 **

3

BIO Elective or Research

3

Distribution Requirement

3

EES Elective

3

PHY-174 - Appls. of Classical and Modern Physics

4

Total Credits

16

MS - Summer College MSC*

3

Seventh Semester

BIO-391 - Senior Projects I

2

BIO Elective

3-4

Distribution Requirement

3

Free Electives

6

Total Credits

14-15

Eighth Semester

BIO-392 - Senior Projects II

2

BIO Electives

6-7

Distribution Requirement

3

EES Elective

2-3

Total Credits

13-15

*EES minor includes 2 MS courses at MSC Wallops Island, excluding MS 110 and MS 260.
**BIO/EES 343 counts toward both the BIO degree and the EES minor. The 18-credit minimum for the minor includes BIO/EES-343.

Summary of Requirements:

Biology Course Credits (BIO-121122225226343391392397 & Wilkes BIO electives (18-20 credits) = 42-44
EES Minor Credits (EES-230343, 2 Wilkes EES electives, and 2 MSC courses) = 18-19
Other Science, Math, and Free Elective Credits = 48;
Core and Distribution Credits (in addition to credits included in the major and minor areas of study) = 25
Minimum Program Credits = 127

Biology

BIO-105. The Biological World

Credits: 3

This course presents concepts and modern ideas pertaining to the natural world and the life sciences. Each semester, a selected topic will be addressed and explored from an investigative set of perspectives. While the scientific method will be emphasized in each offering, the range of topics, identified as a subtitle in the course offering data, will include, for example, 1) Genetics, Evolution, and Ecology: Implications for a Changing Society, 2) Human Biology, 3) Contemporary Issues in the Life Sciences, and others. This course is intended for students who are not majoring in science, engineering, pre-pharmacy, and nursing, or pursuing B.S. programs in mathematics or computer science. Fall semesters: Human Biology—two hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Dissections of specimens may be required in the laboratory component. Spring semesters: Contemporary Issues in the Life Sciences—three hours of lecture each week.

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BIO-113. Microbiology

Credits: 4

This course presents the basic principles of bacteriology and the relationship of micro-organisms to disease and its prevention, control, and treatment. It considers the effects of microbes within the body and the body’s reaction to them. Lecture, three hours per week; laboratory, three hours per week. Offered every spring semester.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-115 or permission of the instructor.

BIO-115. Anatomy & Physiology I

Credits: 4
Terms Offered: Fall

This course provides a general study of the human body, its structure and normal function. It provides
an appreciation of the complex nature of the human body with relation to the promotion of a healthy organism. Dissections of specimens are required in the laboratory portion of these courses. Lecture, three hours per week; laboratory, three hours per week.

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BIO-116. Anatomy & Physiology II

Credits: 4
Terms Offered: Spring

This course is a continuation of BIO-115 and provides a general study of the human body, its structure and normal function. It provides an appreciation of the complex nature of the human body with relation to the promotion of a healthy organism. Dissections of specimens are required in the laboratory portion of these courses. Lecture, three hours per week; laboratory, three hours per week.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-115 or permission of instructor.

BIO-121. Principles of Modern Biology I

Credits: 4

An introduction to concepts of modern biology for students majoring in biology and other sciences. Topics covered include the origin of life, basic biochemistry, cell structure and function, energetics, reproduction and heredity, molecular genetics, and evolution. Four hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory work per week. Offered every fall semester. Required of all Biology majors.

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Co-Requisites

BIO-122. Principles of Modern Biology II

Credits: 4

An introduction to biological diversity and mammalian structure and function for science majors, usually taken as a continuation of BIO-121. Topics include organismal classification, a survey of biological diversity (including characteristics, ecology, phylogenetic relationships, and economic and biomedical uses) of plants, animals, and microbes, and an overview of the mammalian body addressing the form and function of key organ systems. Dissections of specimens are required in the laboratory portion of this course. Four hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered every spring semester. Required of all Biology majors.

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BIO-198. Topics

Credits: 1-3

A study of topics of special interest not extensively treated in regularly offered courses.

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Pre-Requisites
Will vary according to the specific topics course.

BIO-225. Population and Evolutionary Biology

Credits: 4

This course emphasizes the patterns and processes of evolutionary change in living systems in an ecological context. It reviews the basic characteristics and dynamics of populations and the relevance of population ecology and population genetics to the evolution of species. Human evolutions, sociobiology, and other controversial issues are also covered. Laboratory exercises emphasize an experimental approach to more in-depth study of specific topics covered in lecture. Four hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered every fall semester. Required of all Biology majors.

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Pre-Requisites

BIO-226. Cellular and Molecular Biology

Credits: 4

Cell structure in relation to function. Biochemistry and physiology of animal, plant, and bacterial cells and their viruses are presented in a molecular biology context. The cell in division and development. Four hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered every spring semester. Required of all Biology majors.

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Pre-Requisites

BIO-254. Superlab

Credits: 3

Superlab is a research-oriented course in which students carry out laboratory and field-based investigations into research areas such as ecotoxicology, plant physiology, molecular biology, and cancer biology. In this course, students have one hour of classroom instruction per week during the regular semester followed by ten days (over a period of two weeks) of intensive laboratory work after the end of the semester, in which students design and implement experiments and carry out research discussed during the semester with the aid of their instructors. Offered each year.

Pre-Requisites
BIO-225, BIO-226 or BIO-226 as co-requisite.

BIO-298. Topics

Credits: 1-3

A study of topics of special interest not extensively treated in regularly offered courses.

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Pre-Requisites
Will vary according to the specific topics course.

BIO-306. Invertebrate Biology

Credits: 4

This course is a study of the major invertebrate phyla with respect to their taxonomy, evolution, morphology, physiology, and ecology. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121 - BIO-122, BIO-225- BIO-226, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-311. Comparative Physiology

Credits: 4

Comparative Physiology encompasses the study of organ functions and organ system functions in different animal groups. Emphasis will be on the systemic physiology of vertebrate animals. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered every spring semester. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-225- BIO-226, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-312. Parasitology

Credits: 4

Parasitology is the study of organisms that live on or within other organisms and the relationship of these organisms to their hosts. This course deals with the common parasites that infect man and other animals. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-225- BIO-226, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-314. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Credits: 4

This course deals with the evolution and anatomy of the organ systems of vertebrates. Lectures survey the comparative anatomy of the vertebrate classes. Laboratory dissections include the lamprey, shark, mud puppy, and cat in detail. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites

BIO-321. Mammalian Physiology

Credits: 4

This course examines the function of mammalian systems with regard to homeostasis, metabolism, growth and reproduction. Normal physiological processes as well as some pathophysiological situations are covered. The emphasis is on human physiology; other mammalian systems, however, are discussed to demonstrate physiological adaptability to various environmental situations. Laboratory exercises include physiological experimentation in living systems and in computer simulations. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years. This course satisfies the requirement for a course with an emphasis in quantitative biology.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-226, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-323. Functional Histology

Credits: 4

This course emphasizes the microscopic examination of mammalian tissues from morphological and physiological perspectives. Reference is made to organ embryogenesis to support the understanding of organ form and function. Tissue preparation for histological examination is included. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-225- BIO-226, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-324. Molecular Biology

Credits: 4

This course will introduce students to modern concepts and techniques in molecular biology through a genuine research experience in using cell and molecular biology to learn about a fundamental problem in biology. Rather than following a set series of lectures, we will study a problem and see where it leads us. We will use the information given in lectures and reading assignments to solve research problems and, in the process, learn a lot of molecular biology. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites

BIO-325. Endocrinology

Credits: 4

This course will focus on the structure, biochemistry, and function of mammalian hormones and endocrine glands, avian, amphibian, and invertebrate hormones will also be discussed, where relevant. Clinical pathologies resulting from excess or insufficient hormones will be discussed, as this is essential to mastering an understanding of Endocrinology. Laboratory exercises include experimentation in living systems and computer simulations. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-225- BIO-226, or permission of instructor.

BIO-326. Immunology and Immunochemistry

Credits: 4

This course is concerned with the biologic mechanisms and chemistry of reactants and mediators associated with natural and acquired states of immunity, tissue and blood serum responses to infection and immunization, and related pathophysiologic alternations of hypersensitivity phenomena in vertebrate animals and man. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-225- BIO-226, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-327. Medical Microbiology

Credits: 4

Medical Microbiology provides a professional level introduction to microbiology that is focused on application of microbiology to the study of infectious disease etiology and epidemiology. The laboratory covers techniques used in isolation and identification of micro-organisms. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Cross-listed with PHA-327.

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Pre-Requisites

BIO-328. Developmental Biology

Credits: 4

A course dealing with the principles of animal development from descriptive, experimental, and evolutionary perspectives. Laboratory work includes both descriptive and experimental embryology as well as more molecular techniques. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-225- BIO-226, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-329. Virology

Credits: 3

Virology provides an introduction to the biology of animal viruses. Description of viral molecular architecture and genome organization is followed by a survey of strategies employed for multiplication and regulation of gene expression. Pathogenesis of viral infections is considered from perspectives of viral reproduction strategies and host defense.

BIO-330. Introduction to Bioinformatics

Credits: 3

An introduction to the ways computers are used to make sense of biological information, especially the data generated by the human genome project. Topics covered include databases and data mining, pair-wise, and multiple sequence alignment, molecular phylogeny, finding genes in raw DNA sequences, predicting protein and RNA secondary and tertiary structures, generating and analyzing microarray data, DNA fingerprinting, rational drug design, metabolic simulation and artificial intelligence. Offered online alternate spring semesters, with one assignment each week. This course satisfies the requirement for a course with an emphasis in quantitative biology.

Pre-Requisites
BIO-225- BIO-226, CHM-231- CHM-232, MTH-150, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-338. Biology of Cancer

Credits: 3

This lecture course is designed to explore the various concepts and mechanisms associated with the origins, elaborations, and future developments in cellular transformation and carcinogenesis. Emphasis is placed on the molecular biology and physiology of these processes; therefore, a solid background in basic biology is required. Oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and the disruption of homeostasis are covered in detail, while the medical phenomena typically receive a more general level of coverage.

Pre-Requisites

BIO-340. Conservation Biology

Credits: 3

This course will cover the major topics of conservation biology including an introduction to biodiversity, threats to biodiversity, and solutions to diminish extinctions and population declines. Lecture: three hours per week. Offered each year.

Pre-Requisites
BIO-225- BIO-226 or permission of the instructor.

BIO-341. Freshwater Ecosystems

Credits: 3

A study of the biological and ecological aspects of streams, lakes, and wetlands from a watershed perspective. An initial introduction to physical, chemical, and geological principles of limnology is followed by a focus on freshwater biology. Laboratories include field-based watershed investigations and lake management assessments using geographic information systems techniques. Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years. Cross-listed with EES-341.

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Pre-Requisites
EES-211 or EE-240 or BIO-121- BIO-122 or consent of the instructor.

BIO-342. The Archosaurs: Birds, Dinosaurs, and Crocodilians

Credits: 4

This course will cover the biology of the Archosaurs. Major topics include evolutionary history, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecology, and conservation of archosaurs. Laboratory is largely field-based with an emphasis on identifying local fauna and population estimation methods. Laboratory also includes dissection, histology, and a field trip to a museum. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-225 or permission of the instructor.

BIO-343. Marine Ecology

Credits: 3

An examination of the biology of marine life within the context of modern ecological principles. The structure and physiology of marine organisms will be studied from the perspectives of adaptation to the ocean as habitat, biological productivity, and interspecific relationships. Emphasis will be placed on life in intertidal zones, estuaries, surface waters, and the deep sea. Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years. Cross-listed with EES-343.

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Pre-Requisites
EES-230 and BIO-121- BIO-122. Students must have formal course experiences in oceanography and biology at the science major level or have completed their sophomore year as a biology major.

BIO-344. Ecology

Credits: 4

An examination of contemporary ecological thinking as it pertains to the interrelationships of organisms and their environments. Interactions at the population and community level are emphasized. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years. Cross-listed with EES-344. This course satisfies the requirement for a course with an emphasis in quantitative biology.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122 or permission of the instructor

BIO-345. Genetics

Credits: 4

This course presents a detailed treatment of genetics beyond the introductory level in the areas of both transmission and molecular genetics. Includes discussion of the role of genetics in such areas as developmental medicine. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Offered every fall semester.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-225- BIO-226, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-346. Animal Behavior

Credits: 4

Animal Behavior is a course emphasizing behavior as the response of an organism to physical and social environmental change and covering the processes that determine when changes in behavior occur and what form the changes take. Laboratories, using local fauna, demonstrate principles discussed in lecture. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years. This course satisfies the requirement for a course with an emphasis in quantitative biology.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-225- BIO-226, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-347. Biostatistics and Experimental Design

Credits: 4

This course reviews the statistical paradigms and techniques involved in analyzing biological phenomena. Frequentist and Bayesian methods are employed when appropriate with an emphasis on applied statistics and experimental design. Laboratory exercises include designing, analyzing, and communicating experiments. Computation and computer coding is employed in laboratory exercises. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-225, MTH-150, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-348. Field Zoology

Credits: 3

The goals of this summer course are to introduce field methods of zoology and increase familiarity with Pennsylvania animals. Taxa covered include turtles, snakes, birds, fish, insects, and mammals. Topics covered include conservation issues, population estimation, and sampling methods. Lecture: one hour per week. Laboratory: two hours per week. Offered annually.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-225- BIO-226 or permission of the instructor.

BIO-352. Pathophysiology

Credits: 4

Pathophysiology provides a series of lectures, exercises, and problem-solving sessions integrating the concepts of functional anatomy with human disease. Problem-based learning is encouraged by reviewing illustrative clinical cases and using interactive audio-visual media. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-225- BIO-226 or permission of the instructor.

BIO-361. Plant Form and Function

Credits: 4

An introduction to the morphology, anatomy, cytology, and physiology of vascular plants. Structural and functional aspects of plants are interpreted in relation to each other and within ecological and evolutionary contexts. Offered in a workshop format of two three-hour sessions per week. Offered every fall semester.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-225- BIO-226, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-362. Plant Diversity

Credits: 4

A comprehensive survey of algae, bryophytes, and vascular plants emphasizing their structure, reproductive biology, natural history, evolution, and importance to humans. Offered in a workshop format of two three-hour sessions per week. Offered every spring semester.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-225- BIO-226, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-366. Field Botany

Credits: 3

A specialized summertime field course that emphasizes a taxonomic, phylogenetic, and ecological survey of vascular plants indigenous to Northeastern Pennsylvania. Course includes field trips to a diverse array of habitats in Northeastern Pennsylvania. Cross-listed with EES-366. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122 or permission of the instructor.

BIO-368. Medical Botany

Credits: 3

A specialized summertime course that provides a scientifically based overview of the ways in which plants affect human health. Topics include cultural and historical perspectives of plants and medicine, plants that treat human ailments, and psychoactive plants. Two hours of lecture per day for five weeks. Offered in alternate years.

Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122, BIO-225, CHM-231- CHM-232, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-369. Plant Pathology

Credits: 4

This course introduces students to modern concepts and techniques in plant physiology through a genuine research experience in using the techniques of plant physiology to learn about a problem in plant biology. Rather than following a set series of lectures, we will study a problem and see where it leads us. We will use the information given in lectures and reading assignments to solve research problems and, in the process, learn a lot of plant physiology. Offered in alternate years.

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Pre-Requisites
BIO-225- BIO-226, CHM-231- CHM-232, or permission of the instructor.

BIO-391. Senior Research I

Credits: 1-2
Terms Offered: Fall

The student will pursue independent research as a member of a team of senior biology majors. Each team
will be responsible for the identification of an original research problem, a thorough literature review of the problem, a detailed prospectus prepared in the format of a grant proposal, complete execution of the research project, a formal oral presentation, and a final manuscript prepared in standard journal format. Senior research is required of all biology majors seeking a four-year degree in Biology. Open only to senior Biology majors.


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Pre-Requisites

Biology major senior standing

BIO-392. Senior Research II

Credits: 1-2
Terms Offered: Spring

The student will pursue independent research as a member of a team of senior biology majors. Each team
will be responsible for the identification of an original research problem, a thorough literature review of the problem, a detailed prospectus prepared in the format of a grant proposal, complete execution of the research project, a formal oral presentation, and a final manuscript prepared in standard journal format. Senior research is required of all biology majors seeking a four-year degree in Biology. Open only to senior Biology majors.


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Pre-Requisites

Biology major senior standing

BIO-394. Biological Field Study

Credits: 1-3
Pre-Requisites
BIO-121- BIO-122 or permission of the instructor.

BIO-397. Professional Preparation Techniques

Credits: 2

Professional Preparation Techniques introduces Biology majors to Biology as a profession. Students learn how to read, write, and analyze research papers and how to make oral presentations and posters using electronic and paper-based supplements. Career development issues, including effective presentation of credentials, are also addressed. Offered every fall and every spring semester.

Pre-Requisites
Junior-level standing.

BIO-398. Topics

Credits: 1-3

A study of topics of special interest not extensively treated in regularly offered courses.

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Pre-Requisites
Will vary according to the specific topics course.

BIO-399. Cooperative Education

Credits: 1-6

Professional cooperative education placement in a private or public organization related to the student’s academic objectives and career goals. In addition to their work experience, students are required to submit weekly reaction papers and an academic project to a Faculty Coordinator in the student’s discipline. See the Cooperative Education section of this bulletin for placement procedures.Requirements: Sophomore standing, 2.0 minimum cumulative GPA, consent of the academic advisor, and approval of placement by the department chairperson.


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